WHAT IS THE TOEFL?

 

The TOEFL is a comprehensive English language examination required by more than 3,000

colleges and universities in the United States, Canada, and other parts of the world. In addition, foreign born professionals frequently need a TOEFL score for certification to practice their profession in the United States or Canada.

 

The TOEFL is a timed test that consists of the three sections listed here.

THE TOEFL Section 1 Listening Comprehension 50 questions 35 minutes

 

Part A Statements 20 questions

Part B Short Dialogs 15 questions

Part C Minitalks and Extended Conversations 15 questions

 

Section 2

Structure and Written Expression Structure

 

Written Expression

40 questions

25 minutes

15 questions

25 questions

 

Section 3 Vocabulary and Reading

Comprehension

Vocabulary

 

Reading Comprehension

 

60 questions

45 minutes

30 questions

30 questions

 

SECTION 1: LISTENING COMPREHENSION

 

This section of the TOEFL test your ability to understand spoken American English. You will hear taped conversations to which you will make responses. Part A and B contain samples of informal American English. Idiomatic expressions and two-word verbs are common in these parts.

 

Single Statement

 

In Part A you will hear a single statement made by a man or a woman. In your test booklet, there are four sentences. You must choose the sentence that is closest in meaning to the one you heard.

 

YOU WILL HEAR:

 

To get to the post office, cross the street, go three blocks, and you'll see it right on the corner.

 

YOU WILL SEE:

 

(A) The post office is right on the corner.

(B) The post office is at the next corner.

(C) The post office has a cross near it.

(D) The post office is three blocks away.

 

The correct choice is, which most closely gives the same meaning as the sentence you heard. It is important for you to know that if similar sounding words or the same words appear in an answer choice, that answer choice is seldom correct.

 

Short Dialogs

 

Part B contains short dialogs followed by a question about what the people said in their

conversation. Generally, key information is found in the second speaker's sentence. You will need to understand the meaning of the conversation and also the context , such as the time or place in which it could occur. The correct choice directly answers the question.

 

YOU WILL HERE:

 

(Man Did you get to go shopping last night'? (Woman) They'd already locked the doors by the timeI got there.

 

(Man) What does the woman mean?

YOU WILL SEE:

(A) She arrived in time to shop.

(B) She was too late.

(C) She locked the doors.

(D) She had to buy the door.

The correct choice is. Since the doors were locked when she arrived, she could not have goneshopping. Note that the other choices use words heard in the conversation. Choices that contain such words are usually not correct.

Extended Conversation / Minitalks

 

In Part C you will hear an extended conversation or a minitalk. The English in this section is

generally more formal and academic, typical of English conversation or lectures that take place in a university or college setting. After each conversation or minitalk, there are between four and eight spoken questions about its content. Choose your answer from among the four choices that appear in your test book-let. Look at the example here.

 

YOU WILL HERE:

 

Man: Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. Welcome to this tour of one of the nation's most

important cities, Chicago. Before we begin, I'd like to give you some background information that will make the tour more enjoyable for you. The city was founded in 1837. Its strategic location on Lake Michigan quickly made it the center of commerce for the Midwest section of the country. It is

currently the third largest metropolitan area In the United States. The city's site is generally level, built mostly on glacial plain. The narrow Chicago River extends one mile inland from Lake Michigan, where it splits, dividing the city into North, West, and South sides. Chicago's weather is

subject to rapid changes, but generally the climate is cold and windy in the winter, and hot and

humid in the summer.

Woman: What gave Chicago an advantage over other Midwest cities?

YOU WILL SEE:

(A) Its level site.

(B) Its location on Lake Michigan.

(C) Its large population.

(D) Its location along the Chicago River.

According to the minitalk, would be the correct choice. Remember that you will not have a written

copy of the speaker's talk or conversation and you will only hear it once. You must concentrate on

details, such as names, dates, and the main idea of the selection that you hear. Do not read the

choices as you listen to the talk. Listen care-fully and try to remember what you hear.

 

SECTION 2: STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION

 

This section contains two types of questions, both designed to test your ability to recognize correct

style and grammar in written English. The sentences are academic; ones that you typically find in

college level texts, journals, and encyclopedias. The sentence topics include the social sciences,

physical and life sciences, and the humanities.

Structure

The structure questions test your ability to recognize correct structure and word order. These

questions consist of a sentence with one or more words missing. You must make the choice that

best completes the sentence. Here is an example of this type of question.

YOU WILL SEE:

__________ a short time after the Civil War, Atlanta has become the principal center of

transportation, commerce, and finance in the southeastern United States.

(A) While rebuilt

(B) It was rebuilt

(C) Rebuilt

(D) When rebuilt

The correct choice is (C). The other choices make the sentence incorrect or awkward.

Written Expression

The written expression questions test your ability to recognize errors in grammar or expression.

These questions consist of complete sentences with four underlined words or phrases. You must

identify the underlined part of the sentence that needs to be changed in order to make the sentence

correct. An example follows.

YOU WILL SEE:

The Navajo Indians have displayed a marked ability

A B

to incorporate aspects of other cultures into a changing,

C

flexibility lifestyle

D

The correct choice is (D). Flexibility, a noun, appears where an adjective must appear. In addition to

inappropriate parts of speech, be sure to check for missing words and extra words that are

inappropriate for the context.

SECTION 3: VOCABULARY AND READING COMPREHENSION

Good reading skills and an ample vocabulary are keys to doing well on all sections of the TOEFL.

This section of the TOEFL specifically test these skills. Many TOEFL test takers complain that they

do not have enough time to carefully answer all questions in this section. It is very important that

you follow the instructions in this book so that you will use all the allotted time to your advantage.

Vocabulary

The first questions on this section will test your English vocabulary. There are 30 academic

sentences, each containing an underlined word. You must choose the word that has the same

meaning from among the four choices. Here's an example.

YOU WILL SEE:

The United States has instituted a set of forest conservation measures to maintain forest land.

(A) accepted

(B) published

(C) established

(D) suggested

The word that is closest in meaning to the tested word, instituted, is choice (C). Further hints for

vocabulary questions can be found in Chapter 2.

Reading Comprehension

Your ability to read and understand college level reading material is test on this part of the TOEFL.

You will find five or six reading passages, each followed by four to seven questions. You must

work quickly and efficiently. Here is a sample passage.

YOU WILL SEE:

A lens has one or more curved surfaces that refract or bend, light rays passing through it to form an

image on a surface beyond the lens. Examples of such surfaces are the retina of the eye or a movie

screen. The distance from the lens to the focal plane is known as focal length. In cameras,

telescopes, and similar devices, the lens is turned on a screw-thread mounting to adjust the focal

length. This action allows focusing of images of objects at various distances. In the human eye,

focal length is adjusted by muscles that alter the lens curvature. Light rays of different colors are

bent by varying degrees as they pass through a curved surface. This causes a distortion of the

image, known as chromatic aberration. In cameras, sharp images are obtained by arranging two or

more lenses so that the aberration of one cancels out the aberration of another. Such an arrangement

of lenses is called an achromatic lens.

QUESTION:

According to the passage, what is focal length?

(A) A curved surface that refracts light.

(B) The distance from the focal plane to the lens.

(C) Adjustment by the muscles that alters lens curvature.

(D) The degree that light rays of different colors are bent by the lens.

This is a factual question. The information needed to answer this question is directly stated in the

text. Choice (B) is the correct answer. Some questions will ask you to draw conclusions based on

material in the passage, other will ask about the main idea of a selection. Some may even ask what

information does not appear in the passage.

THE TEST OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

Most TOEFL test sessions now require the Test of Written English. The TWE will test your ability

to respond to topics that you may find on typical college level writing assignments. It will test your

ability to

express yourself as well as your organizational skills . The score on this test is reported separately

and is not used to determine your TOEFL score.

SOME HELPFUL HINTS

On all parts of the TOEFL, be sure to answer every question. If you must guess, choose choice (B)

or (C) since they are slightly more likely to be the correct choice than (A) or (D).

Watch your time! Be sure to wear a watch and be aware of the time you have remaining in each

section. Do not waste time reading directions or example in your test booklet. You should become

familiar with these before you take the test. When you are told to begin, go directly to the first

question. When time has expired on a section, you may not return to it. Work quickly and

accurately. If it seems obvious that you will not finish a section within the time limit, guess or

choose answer (B) or (C) in order to complete the section.

Prepare yourself for the test. In addition to this book, Barron's How to Prepare for the TOEFL

provides you with practical hints, tapes with sample questions, model test, and a grammar review to

help you maximize your TOEFL

+ نوشته شده توسط Mohammad Anvar Kahrazahi در 7 Apr 2008 و ساعت 9:52 PM |